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Підготовка учнів 10-11 класів до олімпіад: навчання усному мовленню

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Бердянський муніципальний ліцей Бердянської міської ради в Запорізькій області

How to Speak English Efficiently
Підготовка учнів 10-11 класу (рівень B2) до олімпіад (навчання усному мовленню)

Навчальний посібник для навчання учнів 11 класу (рівень B2) усному мовленню

Автор Гусєва Світлана Олександрівна

2019

1. The Definition of Health + A Healthy Lifestyle
Some people believe that living a healthy lifestyle is the key to one’s happiness.
• What is your idea of a healthy lifestyle?
• How has the definition of health changed over time, and from culture to culture?
• Can a person who is not healthy still be happy?

• What is your idea of a healthy lifestyle?
I think a lot about health and good living. I’m totally opposed to such bad habits as smoking, drinking alcohol or even taking drugs. Instead I choose to live a healthy life which involves a lot of exercise, healthy eating and a fixed routine. I could recommend other people to exercise regularly, think about what they eat and drink and plan their day carefully. Firstly, the best thing you can do is to join a gym. This way, you will have access to specially designed exercise machines and qualified trainers. They will make you look better in no time. In addition, I think you should choose a balanced healthy diet. Why don’t you incorporate carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fibre in your diet? You should try to eat lots of fresh fruit and vegetables. Then, you will feel good and energized. Furthermore, it’s a good idea to drink at least five glasses of water per day. This will help you to stay hydrated. You shouldn’t go to bed late. If you don't get enough sleep, you will lack energy and you will age faster. Sleep replenishes the energies spent during the day and aids the natural healing process of the body. Don't get stressed: keep calm and avoid stress at home, school or work. Learn to relax, and when you feel that your stress level is rising, take a break. Also, give up smoking - every cigarette shortens your life.
• How has the definition of health changed over time, and from culture to culture?
The definition of health differs from culture to culture and reflects the history and traditions of each culture. Long before modern medicine came along, people relied on traditional healing methods to protect and restore their health. These methods consisted largely of the use of various herbs and other naturally occurring products. Some serious illnesses were thought to be caused by evil spirits, so the treatment used by traditional healers were often a mixture of spiritual remedies as well as more practical herbal mixtures. All these practices, however, have one thing in common; they are passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth and imitation and represent a system of practices rather than a collection of unrelated remedies.
• Can a person who is not healthy still be happy?
And of course, you can see a great difference between the people around you who exercise and those who do not. As a proverb goes, “A healthy mind in a healthy body”. People who do not exercise regularly don’t feel very good, they often catch a cold, their immune system is damaged and they look pale and unhealthy. How can a person be happy when he suffers from poor health?

2. Modern Medicine
Many people are distrustful of modern medicine. They believe that natural medicines from herbs and plants work much better.
• If you were sick, would you go to a regular doctor or a doctor who uses herbs and plants as medicine?
• Some argue that laughter makes a person feel better than any medicine can. Do you agree?
• Have your parents ever treated you with medical remedies? Were they effective?

Long before modern medicine came along, people relied on traditional healing methods to protect and restore their health. These methods consisted largely of using various herbs and plants. Medicinal plants are the oldest known health care products and many of today’s modern medical remedies are plant based. The majority of the population of Europe believes that traditional and herbal remedies should be available via the National Health Service. Many modern doctors share this belief and increasingly use a combination of traditional folk remedies and conventional medicines.

• If you were sick, would you go to a regular doctor or a doctor who uses herbs and plants as medicine?
If I had some health problems, I’d certainly go to a doctor who uses the holistic approach. Holistic means whole that is looking at the whole body when it comes to treating patients. Modern medicine treats the symptoms and not the cause of an illness. Drugs and surgery can remove the symptoms, but the cause remains. The holistic approach takes into account not only the symptoms, but also the age, habits, emotions and life-style of the individual, and tries to build an overall picture. Being healthy means there is a balance, or a harmony between your mind and your body. Holistic medicine tries to prevent illness, and we all know that prevention is better than cure. A good diet, with lots of fresh food is essential; a healthy life-style, without too much pressure and worry, and lots of exercise and rest, not too much, not too little – these are the things that will prevent illness.

• Some argue that laughter makes a person feel better than any medicine can. Do you agree?
We say in English: "Laughter is the best medicine". Without a doubt, laughter makes a person feel better than any medicine can. There are several arguments in favour of using an alternative therapy such as laughter. To begin with, some people really believe that laughter is good for their health. So, they go to special classes and have “laughter therapy”. At the start of the class, they all look at each other and say “ho, ho, ho, ha, ha, ha”. Usually, this becomes real laughter and by the end of the class, they feel great. What is more, many doctors agree that laughter is good for our health. For instance, in some children’s hospitals in Europe, clowns visit patients and make them laugh. In my opinion, it’s a good idea to practice laughter therapy.

• Have your parents ever treated you with medical remedies? Were they effective?
My mum has always treated me with medical remedies. She’s used to applying traditional healing methods when somebody in my family is ill. For example, when I have sore eyes, my mum makes chamomile tea and when it’s cooled I use it as an eyewash. It’s always been effective. When I have a sore throat, I usually make a drink of lemon juice, hot water and honey. It’s always worked. I strongly believe that simple home remedies like garlic, onion, ginger, mint or other herbs and plants should be used to restore or protect our heath. Words – 473

1. Choosing a career
1. ¬¬This year you are leaving school. You’ve planned up to work. Make your reasons.
• What is the most important factor for you in deciding a profession?
• What are the other factors?
• Rank the factors in order of their importance.

This year you are leaving school. You’ve planned up to work. Make your reasons.
Choosing a career is a challenging task, because this decision will influence your future life greatly. It’s a matter of your future prestige and wealth. I’ve made up my mind to become a specialist in programming. I’m going to enter the Kyiv Polytechnic University. I’m really keen on IT and I hope to become a skillful specialist. The role of technology in today’s society has always interested me and I would like to pursue a career in this field. So, you could ask me why exactly I decided to become a programmer.
• What is the most important factor for you in deciding a profession?
I believe that while choosing a career you certainly should think if it suits to your personality and interests. Job satisfaction is very important. For example, working in IT is for people who like tasks which require a lot of mental energy. It is a job that deals with solving problems, doing sums and following a specific logic that applies to computers. If you’re not used to doing tasks that are required in the job, you won’t be satisfied with it and eventually grow to hate it. Furthermore, if you’re keen on your job, you’re more likely to get to the top. If you’re ambitious and hard-working, you will surely become a successful person.
• What are the other factors?
However, job satisfaction is not the only important aspect in choosing a career. The money you get means a lot too. It is difficult to enjoy a job, when you can’t pay your bills at the end of the month. And it is hard to deny that employees who are highly-paid have fewer worries than those who earn less money, especially if they have a family of their own to support. Furthermore, a good salary is just as important as a favourable social environment. For example, the place you work in, and the relationships with colleagues aren’t less important. Working in a team with friendly and helpful people can make work more fun. If the general atmosphere is favourable, you work better. In my opinion, all the aspects mentioned above are really important and can have a great influence on your attitude to job.
• Rank the factors in order of their importance.
If I was trying to rank these factors, I would say that the most important aspect is the one that actually makes you happy. Whether it is money, new social connections or just your interest in the field of work– everyone chooses the aspect which is more important for them in this particular point of time. Sometimes you’ll have to find a job not because you want to, but because you desperately need money. Sometimes a job will require to move from your country. It’s all about finding a perfectly matching job, that will keep you satisfied. The most important thing is that your career has to be balanced out with your personal life, leisure and sports. When a person struggles to find such a balance, he or she may suffer from that!
All in all, deciding a career can be difficult, but if you’ll find a job that suits you just right – you will be happy with it for a lifetime and get to the top!

4. Traditions
The author Lemony Snicket said, “Just because something is traditional is no reason to do it, of course.”
• Are traditions important in today’s society?
• Do you think it is better for culture to stick to their traditions, or to change and become more modern?
• Does your culture have strong traditions? Does your family follow them

• Are traditions important in today’s society?
In my opinion, it is vital for nations to keep up with their images and stereotypical generalizations as well as customs and traditions. This is a way a nation can express its identity. I can say that we often see other people as having a set of characteristics that set them apart from others, particularly ourselves. One of the most distinct characteristics is certainly the traditions of a country. While the facial features and stereotypical traits of behavior may be similar between some nationalities, the customs certainly differ.
• Do you think it is better for culture to stick to their traditions, or to change and become more modern?
Nowadays, everything has become global. National borders are unable to block the flow of information and innovation. The process of globalization has caused a cultural mix almost everywhere¬¬, which means that most countries can lose their national identities. Let’s take a look at what’s happening in European countries, as the influence of globalization is more obvious there. For example, almost 20 years ago each European country was very different from the rest. Nowadays you walk through Paris or London and you see the same shops. A recent survey in some European countries found out that the majority of young adults still identify themselves with their country, but close to one third prefer to call themselves European. This means that young people across Europe prefer not to state their nationality.
However, sticking to your national traditions is even more of a problem than losing them entirely. This is all because customs have a tendency to outdate. As the world is progressing, the conservative people who stick to their beliefs are not. For instance, in Kyrgyzstan it is common to kidnap women to make them into wives and force to live with a family they never knew before. You may think I’m talking about the events that happened a few centuries ago, but this is actually happening in 2019! For me, it would be a nightmare to live in a country, where such old traditions are appreciated to this day. I think, there has to be a right balance between sticking to the customs and ignoring them.
• Does your culture have strong traditions? Does your family follow them?
My country actually is close to finding this balance. I think that our traditions have not only survived the centuries, but developed throughout history. Our cultural traditions mean a lot to me. It is what differs me from any other person from another country and shows my cultural background. In my family, we like to sing Ukrainian folk songs and make traditional Ukrainian dishes.
All in all, having cultural traditions is good, but it is necessary to move forward and develop. There seems little doubt that our culture does affect us all and we must look forward to maintaining our national identity.

5. Stereotypes
Stereotypes are generalized descriptions that are said to be true about all members of a certain group.
• Are stereotypes good or bad? Give examples.
• How do they arise and where do they come from?
• How can they influence people?

• Are stereotypes good or bad? Give examples.
I don’t think stereotypes could be good or bad, they just exist. When we think of a certain nation, we may call to mind images such as their typical behavior, some common traits of character, some features of their appearance and the like.
The British, for example, are famous for their tolerance and a specific sense of humour, yet they don’t always say what they think and can be intentionally rude. In France, it is rude not to have a conversation with someone: in England, on the contrary, it is unwise to have one. No one there blames you for silence.
The truth about the British is, of course, much more complicated. However, certain generalizations can be made. Britain is an island – a fact not changed by the construction of the Channel Tunnel. For this reason, British people remain deeply individualistic.
The British are not one nationality but four, who all see each other differently. To the English, the Welsh are a much more talkative group than themselves, and indeed Wales has produced many preachers and trade union leaders. And when we think about Scotland we may call to mind images such as tartan, beautiful scenery and castles. But Scotland is a more complex country than those stereotypical images show us. Even though the people in Britain all have different accents, different cultural backgrounds and different views, and even different languages, they are still all part of an island race, whose culture and customs are mixed so well together that they produce a British identity.
• How do they arise and where do they come from?
As for item 2, let’s trace the origin of several stereotypes. Firstly, when we think of Britain, we immediately think of London and Big Ben which is an example of a characteristic image of London. This is because it is part of the Houses of Parliament, which stand for tradition as well as today’s government. As you see, past and present meet together when it deals with producing a stereotype like this.
Many people think of a British man wearing a dark suit and carrying an umbrella, which is not very typical these days. However, an umbrella is an important image of Britain because it says something about the weather, which people talk about all the time. Other important images are food and drinks. Tea is also a traditional image, but, in fact, most young people now drink more coffee.
In addition, food and drink provide many images of Scotland as well. Whiskey is made from pure Scottish water, porridge is made from Scottish oats, and marmalade was invented in Scotland. These are all traditional, but at the same time show a modern country, as they are major export industries.
• How can they influence people?
As for the influence of stereotypes on people, I can say that we often see other nationalities as having a set of characteristics which set them apart from others, particularly ourselves. In my opinion, it is vital for nations to keep up their images and generalizations as well as their traditions and customs. This is a way how the nation expresses its identity. Taking this fact into consideration, I can say that Ukraine with its long history and rich traditions has something for everybody.

6. The Loss of Cultural Traditions
Because of increasing globalization, many cultures have started to lose some of their cultural traditions while gaining those of others.
• What do you think about this phenomenon?
• How important are your cultural traditions to you? What are the disadvantages of losing your own cultural traditions?
• What are the advantages of knowing the culture and traditions of others?

• What do you think about this phenomenon?
Globalization is a process in the modern society which brings people all around the world closer together. Nowadays everything has become global. National borders are unable to block the flow of information and innovation. However, some people worry that globalization means that individual countries are losing their uniqueness: their own identity. Optimists hope that this will enrich us all. Pessimists fear that the countries affected by globalization will become more and more like all the rest.
In my opinion. It is vital for nations to keep up their images and stereotypical generalizations as well as customs and traditions. This is a way a nation can express its identity. I can say that we often see other people as having a set of characteristics that set them apart from others, particularly ourselves. When we think of a certain nation, we may call to mind images such as their typical behavior, some features of their appearance or come common traits of character.
• How important are your cultural traditions to you? What are the disadvantages of losing your own cultural traditions?
My cultural traditions mean a lot to me. It is what differs me from any other person from a different country and shows my cultural background. For example, Ukrainian Christmas differs a lot from how other people celebrate it, but there’s nothing wrong about it. I strongly believe that you should never be ashamed of your culture because it is a part of your own identity. Taking this fact into consideration, you can see that losing your cultural traditions is certainly a bad thing. In fact, not only for you, but for a country you live in! For example, almost 20 years ago each European country was very different from the rest. Nowadays you walk through Paris or London and you see the same shops. A recent survey in some European countries found out that the majority of young adults still identify themselves with their country, but close to one third prefer to call themselves European. This means that young people across Europe prefer not to state their nationality.
• What are the advantages of knowing the culture and traditions of others?
And of course, there can be plenty of advantages to globalization. To begin with, globalization allows anyone to get familiar with the culture and custos of other people. Learning about another way of life broadens your mind to different points of view. You can also improve your languages skills. It is true that learning other languages and understanding the culture of other people is a 21st century skill that can become a key to mutual understanding between people of different nationalities. Also, globalization has allowed us to study abroad. It’s a richer and more fulfilling experience than studying at home country. Furthermore, it will help you to develop skills and attitudes that will stay with you or a lifetime.
All in all, unity is good, but maybe we are losing something special. There seems little doubt that globalization does affect us all. However. It would be simplistic to state categorically that the effects are entirely good or bad.

7. Globalization
Globalization describes the process by which regional economies, societies and cultures connect through communication, transportation, and trade. This process has sped up greatly over the last two decades.

• What advances in communication caused globalization to speed up?
• What roles has travelling played in the globalization of world economies?
• How can globalization positively affect different countries? How can it negatively affect them?

• What advances in communication caused globalization to speed up?
Globalization is a process in the modern society which brings people from all around the world closer together. Nowadays everything has become global. National borders are unable to block the flow of information and innovation.

Speaking about advances in communication one should mention the technological advancement. True, the tools we use change the way we think and act. The 20th century was dominated by advances in technology. There were many great inventions in the last century. In my opinion, the invention of the Internet and its widespread use across the planet caused globalization to speed up. The Internet can give access to up-to-date information in no time. This means that all forms of content – books, magazines, newspapers, music and videos – are instantly available anywhere in the world on demand. And it can be used day and night in a variety of languages. In addition, it is true you can meet people from all over the world online. Many features of the Internet, like social networking sites, actually help us become more sociable and communicate in new ways. True, people communicate freely across cultural and regional borders. Learning foreign languages and understanding the culture of the people who speak them is a 21st Century Skill that is vital to success in the global environment in which we, young adults, live, study and work nowadays. English is the language of international communication. And it can become a bridge between different cultures and countries because it has established itself as a world language. English can promote mutual understanding between people and unite them.
• What roles has travelling played in the globalization of world economies?
Thanks to package deals and budget airlines, more people have the opportunity to travel abroad these days. In my opinion, travel can offer a wealth of new experience. Travelling abroad broadens the mind by giving us an understanding of the culture, language and cuisine of other countries. As for regional economy, tourism brings income and employment. It ensures economic growth and development in many countries by providing tourists with services and accommodation, food, transport and waste disposal.

Now, let’s talk about the impact of globalization on the modern society. One of the examples of its positive influence is the creation of international organizations that play the key role in the process of globalization. Everybody knows about the work of the UN and its subsidiary UNICEF. Now let’s take, for example, the EU. Acting like a huge umbrella, it influences the lives of all who live in it through the creation of common laws, regulations and markets. There is no one it doesn’t affect. The number of hours we work, the amount of holidays we have, the money many countries use, the system of agriculture, and the level of environmental protection are all decided to some extent by the EU. Its creation also means that people are much freer to live and work where they want to within the EU. A friend of mine works for an international company and has friends in many different countries. He feels at home in an international environment. Another international organization is UNICEF which works hard to protect the basic human rights of children. They focus on many areas, such as sanitation, education, water supplies & protection from abuse.
• How can globalization positively affect different countries? How can it negatively affect them?
However, some people worry that the existence of the EU means that individual countries within it are losing their uniqueness: their own identity. Only 20 years ago each European country was very different from the others. Now you walk through Paris or London and you see the same shops. A recent survey in some European countries found that a majority of young adults still identify themselves with their countries. But close to one-third prefer to call themselves Europeans. Unity is good but maybe we are losing something special. Today, young people in Western Europe have grown up with a Europe that is firmly united. With the expansion of the EU, more countries will be added to the cultural mix. Optimists hope that this will enrich us all. Pessimists fear that the countries entering the Union for the first time will become more and more like all the rest.
There seems little doubt that globalization does affect us. However, it would be simplistic to state categorically that the effects are entirely good or bad.

8. Universal Language
Do you think a universal language would be useful for modern life?
• Which language would you suggest as the common language?
• What are the disadvantages of having a universal language?
• How do you think knowing more than one language can affect your life?

• Which language would you suggest as the common language?
Everybody knows English is the language of international communication. I think that it perfectly suits for the role of a universal language. These days, almost 1 person in 5 of the world’s entire population belongs to English-speaking people. English is the main language in 85 countries and territories, and there about 400 million people who speak it as their first language. Another 300 million people speak English as a second language and 500 million more study it as a foreign language. One in two Europeans can speak English quite well and can have a proper conversation.
Undoubtedly, English is widely used in almost every area of our lives. It is needed for specialists in all sorts of jobs. It’s the top language for diplomacy, business, commerce, technology, science, culture, tourism and entertainment. It’s also the language of computers, aviation, international sport and music. 75% of the world’s mail is in English. 60% of the world’s radio stations broadcast in English. More than half of the world’s periodicals are printed in English. New ideas in science, technology and medicine happen so quickly that it is impossible and very expensive to translate everything into different languages so most things are published in English. If you want to keep up with the latest ideas in any subject, you can’t do without English.
• What are the disadvantages of having a universal language?
However, some people say that the existence of a universal language means that individual cultures are gradually losing their uniqueness, their own identity. Nowadays, everything has become global. National borders are unable to block the flow of information and innovation. It is hard to deny that we’re all affected by the presence of the English language culture. The more people speak English, the less they speak their own languages. This can eventually affect said languages and mix them with English.
• How do you think knowing more than one language can affect your life?
Nevertheless, speaking more than one language can also be a good thing. Firstly, this means that you can live and work in an international environment. English can help you get an exciting job, meet interesting people, travel the world and, of course, to make new friends. Learning other languages and understanding the culture of other people is a 21st century skill that can become a key to success in a global environment. Secondly, it is true that knowledge of different languages opens up a huge range of new information. You can view foreign content such as movies or songs, scientific researches or books, and everything else that hasn’t been translated yet. You might think there’s not much to see, but this is surely a misconception. Finally, the more languages you know, the more of a person you are. It is true, that when you speak another language, your behavior and expressions change a bit. For example, speaking English helps me to become more self-confident, relaxed and friendly towards other people.
All in all, it is hard to deny that English, being a universal language, affects us all. However, it would be simplistic to state categorically that the effects are entirely good or bad.

9. The Influence of Mass Media
• Why do you think some people do not want to learn another language?
• Do you think it is important to understand more than just your native language?
• How would the world be different if more people were multilingual?

• Why do you think some people do not want to learn another language?
Many people are aware of the fact that it is important to speak several languages nowadays more than ever. However, some people do not support this idea. Why would I have to learn a foreign language, they say, if I am already satisfied with what I have on the native side of the Internet? Actually, there are some discernable reasons for learning other languages.
But first, we need to understand why some people may not want to learn another language. In my opinion, it all comes from the difficulty of learning a language. Many of them seem easy at first, but then the bridge between basic knowledge and mastery takes a long time to cross and many people just give up. You must be persistent and work hard to master a language, so quite a lot of people just don’t have guts for that.
• Do you think it is important to understand more than just your native language?
I strongly believe that every person should know more than one language. Why, you ask? Firstly, if English is not your native language you definitely should learn it. Otherwise, you would be cut off from our progressive and developing world. The newest ideas in science, medicine and technology happen so quickly that it is impossible and very expensive to translate everything into different languages. English is an international language so most things are published only in English. Secondly, if you want to get familiar with some other cultures, you should take a look at a foreign side of the Internet. The invention of the Internet made it possible to communicate with people all around the world and gather information in matter of seconds. Learning about another way of life from other people broadens your mind to different points of view. Your only obstacle here is the language barrier.
• How would the world be different if more people were multilingual?
Without a doubt, if all the people were multilingual the world would be a much easier place to live. For example, while visiting a foreign country you wouldn’t struggle to communicate with locals anymore. What’s more, you would be more eager to study in a foreign country if you already know its language. Also you would use the Internet more freely, if you have no language barrier. You could read, watch and listen to anything you like, because you perfectly understand what is it about. Just imagine how wonderful could it be!
To sum up, I can say that it really is important to know a few more languages besides of your native one. If you want to keep up with the world, you must motivate yourself and begin to learn languages.

10. The Influence of Mass Media
Some people argue that the content of mainstream media such as TV, movies, videogames and the Internet has a negative influence on young people.
• Do you think that mainstream media negatively influences young people?
• What are some positive and negative aspects of the content of this media?
• If there are negative effects, what can we do to combat them?

Almost every child nowadays has access to mass media. Without a doubt, it is the window on the world and you can certainly learn a lot from it. However, some children misuse mass media. They access inappropriate websites or spend days in front of their favorite gadgets. In strongly believe that this issue has to be addressed.
To begin with, mass media has a number of advantages. First of all, it is clear that it has the power to educate. You can find any information on the Internet or watch an educational show on TV. What’s more, playing videogames improves your speed of reaction and spatial awareness. Videogames also teach you problem solving and task management.
However, some people have the opposite view. They claim that mass media is so powerful that the advantaged are outweighed by advantages. Studies have shown a direct correlation between time spent watching TV and falling educational standards. The more time children spend gaping at TV or YouTube, the higher the risk they will suffer from insomnia, attention deficiency disorder or learning difficulties. Furthermore, there is an increasing concern about violence both on TV, the Internet and in videogames. However, it remains uncertain whether violent content makes you aggressive or whether aggressive people are attracted to violence.
The best thing you can do to solve this problem is to set parental controls or simply educate your child about the proper use of mass media. Advice could be given at home, in school and through advertising.
All things considered, there seems little doubt that modern technology does affect us all. However, it’s neither entirely good or bad. Like many things in life, it depends on how you use it and it is certainly better in moderation than in excess.
11. The Importance of Pop Culture
These days, many people choose to keep up with pop culture while their opponents tend to make fun of them saying “What a waste of time”. But is it really the case?
• Is it important to keep up with pop culture? Why or why not?
• If you stopped paying attention to pop culture, would you be able to participate in the same kinds of conversations with your friends?
• Does pop culture create similar interests in people throughout the world?

• Is it important to keep up with pop culture? Why or why not?
I strongly believe that the disadvantages of pop culture are outweighed by advantages. However, no one is neither forcing you to keep up with pop culture, nor tells you to stay away from it. I think, that the choice should depend only on you. You may have heard about the downsides of pop culture, but you should also consider the advantages.
• If you stopped paying attention to pop culture, would you be able to participate in the same kinds of conversations with your friends?
There are several reasons why it can be difficult to hold a conversation without awareness of pop culture. To begin with, it is true that pop culture knowledge allows you to have a conversation with almost any person. For example, at some point in a business relationship your conversation can go beyond the boardroom. Being able to talk about everything from baseball scores to Rihanna albums may help you to make friends outside the office. What’s more, it can help to solve the problem of the generation gap. I mean that it’s beneficial for parents to know what their kids are up to. Therefore, pop culture can become a key to forming healthy relationships between people on the different sides of the generation gap.
As for me, it wouldn’t be a big problem, if I stopped paying attention to what’s popular. While pop culture knowledge can certainly help you to build relationships, it is not used that much in conversations with people you’re already friends with. For example, my friends and I usually discuss our hobbies and daily life. We have even developed some common hobbies, so there’s always what to talk about apart from pop culture.
• Does pop culture create similar interests in people throughout the world?
Undoubtedly, pop culture is an international phenomenon. It is so powerful that it can help people all across the world to find some topics to discuss. It is true that communicating with people from different countries is certainly beneficial for you. Learning about another way of life broadens your mind to different points of view. Pop culture will help anyone to create mutual understanding between people of different nationalities.
To conclude, I must say that while keeping up with pop culture certainly has numerous benefits to it, it should be your choice whether to follow the trend or not.

12. The Importance of Pop Culture
Multimedia has become extremely advanced within the last decade. What is your view on media in the 21st century?
• Is it good that people have access to almost anything through the Internet? Why or why not?
• In your opinion, what are the benefits of the advances in media?
• What do you imagine media will be like by the year 2025?

• Is it good that people have access to almost anything through the Internet? Why or why not?
Almost every person nowadays has access to mass media. Without a doubt, it is the window on the world and you can certainly learn a lot from it. However, there can also be a lot of disadvantages.
It is hard to deny that the invention of the Internet and its widespread use across the planet has changed the way we think and act. Nowadays we can have access to up-to-date information in no time. It can be viewed day and night in a variety of languages. This means that you no longer have to spend countless hours in your local library to find a bit of information. Furthermore, the invention of the Internet has caused globalization to speed up. Learning other languages and getting to know different cultures broadens your mind and worldview. While some people misuse the Internet by accessing inappropriate websites or offending people online, I strongly believe that worldwide Internet access is certainly a good thing. We just have to learn how to use it properly.
• In your opinion, what are the benefits of the advances in media?
Speaking about the Internet, no one should negotiate the huge presence of mass media in there. Undoubtedly, mass media has a number of advantages. First of all, it is clear that it has the power to educate. You can find any information on blogs, watch an educational show on YouTube.
What’s more, it is safe to assume that mass media has not only become advanced, but also evolved within a decade. Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram can also be seen as means of mass media, because they can get information spread instantly – a lot faster than any magazine or radio broadcast would. Nowadays everyone uses social media: politicians, scientists, movie stars, and even your school teachers! If some major event happens, it certainly will be highlighted by people on Facebook or Twitter, so if you want to know what’s happening in the world nowadays, you can’t do without social media!
• What do you imagine media will be like by the year 2025?
Is it possible, though, that mass media will face another evolution in the near future? I believe that by the year 2025 mass media may not change its form, but make better use of contemporary technologies. For example, the Internet may enhance the use of neural networks in order to show content based on your recent and overall interests. Many people say that it is difficult to find what you actually need in an endless ocean of information that Internet is. Neural networks could help us by sorting daily news, pictures and posts in correlation to what we tend to look for on the Internet. For example, if you work in IT and you’re interested in technology in general, you will get to know about the new trends and inventions without even typing it out in the search box! Isn’t that exiciting?

13. Is Money a Key to One’s Happiness?
Do you think that money can buy happiness?
• When did money make your life easier?
• When did money make your life more difficult?
• There are some who say that it is impossible to be both rich and have morals. Do you agree or disagree? Explain

I strongly believe that every person has their own key to happiness. Most people dream of becoming rich and famous but is that what success is really about? When it comes to money, I can say that it’s not how much money you make, but rather how you choose to spend it that makes a difference.
• When did money make your life easier?
Money can certainly make everyone’s life simpler and more enjoyable. For example, if you suffer from a disability or a disease, only money can really solve your problem. How can a person be happy if he or she suffers from poor health? If you’re a businessman and you want to build a career, you can’t do it without any investments. If your dream is to express your feelings and concerns through art, you’ll also need money for paint or a camera. And if you’re just a usual person, money can also bring you happiness. For instance, money allows us to travel abroad. It’s a more fulfilling experience than just walking around your native town.
• When did money make your life more difficult?
However, money can also make a person’s life harder. Although I’ve never experienced such difficulties in my life, I can still give you some examples. It is a fact that many people who have achieved fame and wealth are far less happy with their lives. They worry constantly about their money and reputation. They are rarely satisfied with what they have.
No doubt that you sometime had thought about what would you do if you won the lottery. Perhaps you wished you’d buy a helicopter or a villa with a swimming pool. But did you know about the downsides of winning the lottery? To begin with, if you possess a large amount of money, you need to take care about the security of your house. It can lead to the point when you’ll suffer from paranoia. What’s more, lottery winners can find themselves surrounded by cunning relatives and friends, all wanting the piece of the pie. It can end up really tragic, if you’re not interested in sharing your cash with other people. For example, there was a man called Abraham Shakespeare, who once won 30 million dollars in a lottery. Soon enough everyone knew about it and Abraham was constantly harassed by people who wanted part of his cash. Couple of days later he was found dead in one of his friends’ backyard.
• There are some who say that it is impossible to be both rich and have morals. Do you agree or disagree? Explain
While talking about wealthy people, everybody may call to stereotypical images of them having such traits as cruelty, greed or ignorance. In my opinion, it is simplistic to state categorically that rich people are entirely good or bad. For example, let’s take a look at Bill Gates. Undoubtedly, he completely changed the world we knew just fifty years ago, and his great invention made him a lot of money. However, he does not scrooge upon his wealth. He created multiple charity organizations. Bill Gates gives away about 4 billion dollars a month to those in need. As far as I’m concerned, Bill Gates is an ideal example of philanthropy and wealth combined.
To conclude, I must say that while money certainly can bring you joy, it is not an ideal recipe to one’s happiness. We must realize that human values ad qualities are far more important than material things.

14. The Pros and Cons of Inorganic Produce
• Why do people prefer organic food to inorganic food?
• How have supermarkets and fast food restaurants responded to this trend?
• Do you think that this trend will last?

These days, many people choose organic food instead of inorganic. It is true that genetically modified foods can be both harmful and beneficial for us, yet people are still searching for natural produce at the market.

First of all, let’s get the main question out of the way. What inorganic food even is? The difference between organic and inorganic food has to do with how food is produced. For example, organic food like fruit, milk and meat is produced without pesticides, fertilizers, growth hormones and genetic modifications. And now, how about taking a look at why people prefer eating organic food?

• Why do people prefer organic food to inorganic food?

There is a number of reasons, why more and more people nowadays try to avoid inorganic foods. To begin with, they are not quite sure which food is safe to eat and which isn’t. There were so many misleading articles and fake theories, that a lot of people became scared of such a word combination as “genetically modified food”. Well, I can say that this concern has a bit of truth in it. How can a person be sure, that what he is eating isn’t going to harm him now or in the long run? Organic foods are popular because they are guaranteed to be fresh and free from chemicals. What’s more, studies have shown that people find organic food tastier than inorganic. Pesticides and hormones make produce taste more like plastic than like real apples, bananas or oranges.
Furthermore, organic foods are popular amongst people who are eager to help the environment. Growing inorganic produce causes soil erosion. This results in excess dust in the air, which is causing air pollution. So, if you’re worrying about your health and the state of our ecosystem, buy organic and avoid pesticides! The only downside here is that organic food is very expensive.

• How have supermarkets and fast food restaurants responded to this trend?
Speaking about buying produce, how can supermarkets and grocery stores make you sure you buy organic food? Back in 2000s you could often see labels saying that the product you’re about to buy is “GM-free”. Nowadays, however, people stopped believing these labels. They say that products that are said to be “GM-free” taste and look just the same as ones without a label.
However, recently in many rural areas around the world there has been a return to the traditional outdoor market. Farmers’ markets, where farmers sell their products directly to the customers, had practically died out because of the attraction of the large supermarkets, but they have been resurrected nowadays, both to help farmers make more profits, and to provide customers with ‘real’ food again such as fresh meat, eggs, vegetables and preserves.

• Do you think that this trend will last?

One thing that is often overlooked is that genetic engineering isn’t really anything new. Farmers have been doing it for thousands of years by cultivating hybrids, which means putting two varieties of plant together to make a new variety. The difference today is that scientific knowledge and technology has advanced to the point where we can now alter a plant to make it more resistant to diseases or stop insects eating it. Also, we’re even working on ways to develop foods that are more nutritional.
Considering this, I can say that the trend of improving natural produce through modifications will live on. However, farmers must regulate the use of chemicals, as it may be bad for consumers and for our environment.

15. The Internet
The invention of the Internet is one of the most revolutionary inventions of the past century.
• How has the Internet affected your life?
• What impact does it have on the lives of the people around you?
• What do you think life would be like without the Internet?

The 20th century was dominated by advances in technology. There were many great inventions in the last century. In my opinion, the invention of the Internet and its widespread use across the planet has totally changed our world.
• How has the Internet affected your life?
I strongly believe that the Internet has made my life a lot easier. Thanks to the Internet and social networking sites I can easily communicate with my friends and share music, videos and photos with them. For instance, I’m constantly using a conversation with my classmates in the social networking site Facebook, which I find really useful. We keep informed about what’s going on at school. We can also keep in touch and help each other while doing our homework. It is very convenient indeed, especially if you are ill and stay at home.
• What impact does it have on the lives of the people around you?
The Internet has already revolutionized everything in the modern world. We rely on it in almost every area of our lives. The Internet is used in all sorts of jobs, to store and process information. Most of today`s technologies would be impossible without it. To begin with, the Internet gives us access to up-to-date information. This means that all forms of content – books, magazines, newspapers, music and videos – are instantly available anywhere in the world on demand. What is more, it is a world-wide communication device where you can meet people from all over the world online. For example, it is easy to find people who share the same interests and hobbies as you. Finally, it is quick and easy to shop online. You can visit a lot of different websites and order at the click of a button.
• What do you think life would be like without the Internet?
Without the Internet, our lives would be much more difficult. We would still waste valuable time in long queues instead of shopping online. Moreover, we would still pay expensive phone bills or rely on the old-fashioned postal service instead of communicating quickly, cheaply and easily with people all around the world.

16. The Modern Technology
• In which ways does the steady progression of technology influence our world?
• What do you feel are the negative and positive effects of technology?
• Do you think that we should control the progression? If so, how and why? If not, why and what will you say to those who argue the other side?

• In which ways does the steady progression of technology influence our world?

Throughout the centuries, the tools we used, defined our behavior and our worldview. In the modern age, there seems no doubt that technology does influence our world greatly. Nowadays everything has become global and the invention of computer and the Internet has made our daily lives much more easy. Optimists hope that this will enrich us all. Pessimists fear that the technological advancement will make our society a disaster. In my opinion, you should consider both the pros and cons to modern technology.

• What do you feel are the negative and positive effects of technology?

There are a number of advantages to modern technology. To begin with, it is world-wide communication device where any information is available at any time. It can be used day and night in a variety of languages. In addition, it is true you can meet people from all over the world online. For example, it is easy to find people who share the same interests and hobbies as you. Furthermore, it is quick and easy to shop online. For instance, you can visit a lot of different websites and order at the click of a button. Taking this fact into consideration, we can be sure that without computers, our lives would be much more difficult.
However, some people take the opposite view. They can list several disadvantages to technology and its rapid progress. Firstly, some people argue that technological advancement causes laziness in our society. A recent survey in some European countries found out that a majority of young adults spend much more time indoors. People usually spend their time in the Internet, when they’re staying at home. So, instead of working, studying or doing other important things, we now tend to procrastinate. What’s more, studies have shown a direct correlation between time spent watching TV and falling educational standards. Furthermore, it is argued that technology has had a terrible effect on family life. People no longer talk to each other, they spend all the time in front of the screen of their favorite gadgets instead of going out together or simply having a conversation.

• Do you think that we should control the progression? If so, how and why? If not, why and what will you say to those who argue the other side?
Unfortunately, the technological advancement has both positive and negative aspects. The positive one is that our society is developing with the help of technology. Nowadays, everyone can get any information they need in a matter of seconds. No need for libraries, cinemas, museums and the like! Furthermore, the Internet allows us to The negative effects are equally important. For example, the costs of growth and development are already unacceptably high. Land, air and water pollution, the destruction of the ozone layer are all part of the price of progress. Unless we do something to deal with the ecological problems, the world will not be fit to live in.
To conclude, I must say that there seems no doubt that modern technology does affect us all. However, it would be simplistic to state categorically, that the effects are entirely good or bad.

17. The Modern Technology
• In which ways does the steady progression of technology influence our world?
• What do you feel are the negative and positive effects of technology?
• Do you think that we should control the progression? If so, how and why? If not, why and what will you say to those who argue the other side?

• In which ways does the steady progression of technology influence our world?

Throughout the centuries, the tools we used, defined our behavior and our worldview. In the modern age, there seems no doubt that technology does influence our world greatly. Nowadays everything has become global and the invention of computer and the Internet has made our daily lives much more easy. Optimists hope that this will enrich us all. Pessimists fear that the technological advancement will make our society a disaster. In my opinion, you should consider both the pros and cons to modern technology.

• What do you feel are the negative and positive effects of technology?

There are a number of advantages to modern technology. To begin with, it is world-wide communication device where any information is available at any time. It can be used day and night in a variety of languages. In addition, it is true you can meet people from all over the world online. For example, it is easy to find people who share the same interests and hobbies as you. Furthermore, it is quick and easy to shop online. For instance, you can visit a lot of different websites and order at the click of a button. Taking this fact into consideration, we can be sure that without computers, our lives would be much more difficult.
However, some people take the opposite view. They can list several disadvantages to technology and its rapid progress. Firstly, some people argue that technological advancement causes laziness in our society. A recent survey in some European countries found out that a majority of young adults spend much more time indoors. People usually spend their time in the Internet, when they’re staying at home. So, instead of working, studying or doing other important things, we now tend to procrastinate. What’s more, studies have shown a direct correlation between time spent watching TV and falling educational standards. Furthermore, it is argued that technology has had a terrible effect on family life. People no longer talk to each other, they spend all the time in front of the screen of their favorite gadgets instead of going out together or simply having a conversation.

• Do you think that we should control the progression? If so, how and why? If not, why and what will you say to those who argue the other side?
Unfortunately, the technological advancement has both positive and negative aspects. The positive one is that our society is developing with the help of technology. Nowadays, everyone can get any information they need in a matter of seconds. No need for libraries, cinemas, museums and the like! Furthermore, the Internet allows us to The negative effects are equally important. For example, the costs of growth and development are already unacceptably high. Land, air and water pollution, the destruction of the ozone layer are all part of the price of progress. Unless we do something to deal with the ecological problems, the world will not be fit to live in.
To conclude, I must say that there seems no doubt that modern technology does affect us all. However, it would be simplistic to state categorically, that the effects are entirely good or bad.

18. Environmental Problems
Most scientists argue that we live in a dangerous time of climate change.
• Why should all people be concerned about the environment?
• How can humans undo the damage they've done to the Earth?
• What are people doing in your town or village to help the environment?

• Why should all people be concerned about the environment?
Nowadays many scientists believe it's all our fault that the Earth is heating up. When we burn fossil fuels, greenhouse gases such carbon dioxide increase and surround the earth like a thick blanket. This traps heat and temperatures rise. Scientists say that in the next 100 years average temperatures will rise by about 3° C. This doesn’t sound like a lot, but in means a BIG trouble! Ice is already melting, sea levels are rising and the climate is changing. How exactly is all this changing our world, and what will happen if we don’t act in time?

If people of the world don’t take action, life on Earth can get much worse. Climate change doesn’t just mean hotter temperatures. It means more and more extreme and unpredictable weather! Heavy rain and snow, storms, heat waves, droughts, more powerful hurricanes and tornadoes… these all happen a lot more frequently these days and more and more climatologists now believe this is because of global warming. The rise in temperature will also cause the polar icecaps to melt and so the sea level will rise. If this happens, whole countries such as the Maldives will vanish and millions in law-lying areas like parts of Bangladesh will lose their homes. Already, two small Pacific islands have disappeared under the waves. Coastal cities including Shanghai, Bangkok, New York and London will also be under threat. Something needs to be done about these problems before it is too late.
• How can humans undo the damage they've done to the Earth?
Now how can we stop global warming? We must act now. Firstly, individuals should use their cars less and walk or cycle more often. This will help to reduce pollution. Another good idea would be to save as much as we can. For example, people should always turn off electric lights and appliances when they are not in use. Furthermore, authorities should pass special laws about using alternative forms of energy. People should use clean energy from the sun, wind and waves. Also, laws must be passed to recycle rubbish such as plastic bottles, cans and paper. By doing this, we would reduce pollution and help to preserve the Earth’s natural resources.
• What are people doing in your town or village to help the environment?
Our town is very popular with tourists, especially in the summer. Unfortunately, tourism has had some negative effects on the environment. The local council is initiating loads of improvements to help the environment. For example, lots of trees have already been planted everywhere.
There are still a few things to do as we have a number of problems, such as litter, traffic congestion and polluted air. Firstly, efforts should be made to deal with the problem of litter. This could be solved quite easily by providing more rubbish bins in public places. As a result, people would stop dropping litter on the ground. Secondly, steps must be taken to improve air quality. A useful suggestion would be to ban cars from the city centre. In this way, there would be fewer cars on the roads and lower levels of harmful gases would be released into the atmosphere. Finally, it would be a good idea if factories were moved out of the area. As a result, air pollution would be reduced. In conclusion, there are a number of solutions to the environmental problems of our town. Putting some of these ideas into action would definitely make life better for everyone.

19. Environmental Problems

Zoos are a fun place for children and can make people happy. What are the benefits of zoos? What are the negative aspects?
• How are zoos good and bad for animals? What can be done to improve zoos?
• Is it important for animals to be in their natural environment?
• What if people were put to zoos? How would society be different?

• How are zoos good and bad for animals? What can be done to improve zoos?

I agree with Dr. Dolittle, a character from a number of books by Hugh Lofting, who would say: “A zoo should be an animal home not an animal prison”. Think of a zoo and images of animals imprisoned in cages is what usually comes to mind. Fortunately, a revolution has been taking place in zoos across Europe, and it looks as though things will never be the same again. A new set of guidelines, called the European Union Zoo Directive, is coming into effect. It has already forced zoos to review their role in animal welfare. Most cities of the world have already refused to have zoos and started creating safari parks. This is fantastic news for the animals, who are seeing their concrete cages gradually disappear and are enjoying greatly improved living conditions which are so close to their habitats as possible.
The new conversation role of zoos involves the breeding of endangered species in captivity. This is carried out in cooperation with other zoos. Together they try to maintain the animals’ health as well as increase their numbers. Recently British zoos have created natural environments where the animals are happy to live. They use water and other natural barriers as well as hidden fences to separate the animals from each other and from the visitors. This is an exciting time for Europe’s zoos. Their new roles mean they can become a time capsule, preserving and increasing the numbers and life expectancy of much of our wildlife.

• Is it important for animals to be in their natural environment?
I hold that keeping animals in captivity is inhuman. This highly irresponsible practice can be harmful to the animals, because they’re often kept in cramped conditions. In particular, animals which are kept in zoos are unable to hunt or breed as they do in the wild. This causes them to lose the natural abilities they possess. What’s more, there are some types of animals that only live in herds, for example wolves and lions. I think it is very cruel to excommunicate them from their natural social group. Even a human would be depressed and exhausted if you forced him to leave his family and friends forever and reside in captivity.
• What if people were put to zoos? How would society be different?
Now let’s imagine what happened if people were put to zoos? I suppose, things would change quite a bit. Just think about it – you’ve been put in a cage for some strange yet intelligent creatures to be observed. At the first time, you’ll feel desperate and stressed, you would think about how to escape. Then upon realizing the impossibility of escaping from a human zoo, you’d be depressed and lose any hope in life. I think that prisoners feel ¬¬something like that. So we can assume the human zoo society will be like the one in prison. But not the regular one – your captors will laugh and tease you every second of your life. A horrible situation, indeed! Considering this, there is no doubt that it is very cruel to put animals in zoos.
20. Social Networking Sites
Social networking sites like vKontakte and Facebook are seemingly all over the place. Do you see this as a good thing or bad thing? Why?
• Apart from socializing with friends, what other uses do social networking sites have?
• How can social networking sites be used as an agent of social change in Ukraine?
• If all social networking sites were shut down forever, how would your life be affected?

These days, many people choose to be part of a social network. Without a doubt, using social networking sites can be addictive, but what are the advantages?
There are several reasons why using social networks can be beneficial. To begin with, they allow people to see our social connections in a user-friendly interface. For example, you can look up old friends, make new friends and share music, photos and videos with them. What is more, different social networking sites allow people to interact in different ways. For instance, there are some social networks that involve media sharing, such as YouTube, where members upload and look at other people’s pictures and videos.
On the other hand, there can be plenty of disadvantages to using social networks. To start with, social networking sites have changed the way that we interact with people on a daily basis. For example, social networks make it easy to maintain a vast number of friendships, though these relationships are not always deep and meaningful. Also, it is argued that for some people the Internet is a complete substitute for life and they have simply become social networks addicts. They think they’re popular and cool but in fact they’re lonely and miserable. They lack real love or friendship.
Although there are some disadvantages to using social networking sites, I feel that they are outweighed by advantages.
• If all social networking sites were shut down forever, how would your life be affected?
If all social networking sites were shut down forever, personal relationships would, most likely, become more of an important thing to people. Without social networks, people would be forced to keep up with close friends and relatives only, in fact the people who mean the most to them. For me personally, it wouldn’t be a huge problem but for most people who were born after say 1985 to 1990, this would be a nightmare. They wouldn't know what to do without using the Internet or their mobile phones.
• Apart from socializing with friends, what other uses do social networking sites have?
When you create profile on a social networking site, you open up a huge range of possible social connections. But apart from socializing with friends social networks have some other uses. You can also join groups based on your interests or hobbies, favourite TV shows or music. As for me I’m constantly using a conversation with my classmates in the social networking site VKontakte, which I find really useful. We keep informed about what’s going on at school. We can also keep in touch and help each other while doing our homework. It is very convenient indeed, especially if you are ill and stay at home.
• How can social networking sites be used as an agent of social change in Ukraine?
Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram can also be seen as means of mass media, because they can get information spread instantly – a lot faster than any magazine or radio broadcast would. Nowadays everyone uses social media: politicians, scientists, movie stars, and even your school teachers! If some major event happens, it certainly will be highlighted by people on Facebook or Twitter, so if you want to know what’s happening in the world nowadays, you can’t do without social media!

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Гусєва Світлана Олександрівна

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